Сергій Кабуд ( Кий ) (xyu) wrote,
Сергій Кабуд ( Кий )

44 percent of russians who lived in Ukraine in 1989 were born outside Ukraine

тут наводяться лише данні про в'їзд і виїзд з України
з кінця 19 сторіччя і по сьогодення.

Не забуваймо що совєцкій режим відправив на 'той світ' лише у 32-33 роках

7 міліонів українців переважно в сільській місцевості.

Кількість жертв серед українців під час змагань за незалежність
та боротьби проти більшовизма у 20х роках теж вимірюється міліонами.

Також червона армія Сталіна і союзна їй гітлерівска армія під час
спільної окупації їми України в часи Другої світової війни знищили
на смерть не меньше 10 міліонів українців.

Окремо від Голодомору 30 років та інших періодів голодух (40і роки)
совецьким режимом в в масових політичних репресіях були знищені
ще сотні тисяч а можливо і міліони українців.



Before soviet occupation

As a result of poverty and lack of land, over

10 percent of the population of Western Ukraine, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, immigrated to the United States, Canada, and Latin American countries between the end of the 19th and the beginning of 20th century.

In the interwar period, when the western Ukrainian territories belonged to Poland and Romania, emigration continued apace.

Emigration from eastern Ukraine, which belonged to the Russian empire, was also strong.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the czarist government transferred :

1.6 million (at least) Ukrainian peasants to Kazakhstan and the Russian Far East, providing them with land plots in order to settle remote territories.


Economic emigration was complemented by two waves of political emigration to the West.

The first was caused by the defeat of the 1917-1920 national revolution while the second was the result of the Soviet administration's oppression of the resistance movement by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) during World War II and afterwards.

These migrations caused a large Ukrainian diaspora to form in the Western hemisphere.

Today, approximately:

2 million Ukrainians and those of Ukrainian descent live in the US

1 million in Canada

300 thousands in Brazil.

During Stalin's reign, force was increasingly used to resettle Ukrainians. At the time of collectivization:

1 million people (at least)
- 200 thousands farming households - were "dekulakized" (a process whereby purportedly wealthy peasants or kulaks were oppressed by Stalin for having capitalist tendencies) and forcibly deported.

1 million people (at least)
- were deported by the Soviet administration from western Ukraine between 1939 and 1941 after its annexation to the USSR in accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.

In this agreement, Hitler and Stalin divided up Poland, whose borders then included much of western Ukraine, including the important city of Lviv.

200 thousands people from the region were accused of political unreliability and deported in the post-war period.

Representatives of national minorities in the Ukraine were oppressed along with ethnic Ukrainians. In the 1930s and 1940s:

450 thousands ethnic Germans and

200 thousands(at least) Crimean Tatars were deported

Also deported were: Poles, Bulgarians, Armenians, and Greeks.

In addition to deportations, the regime actively used supposedly "voluntary" migration tactics, including the mobilization of youth for new building projects, centralized reallocation of new university graduates, and army service.

In the Soviet era, the number of ethnic Ukrainians who lived within the USSR but outside of Ukraine grew consistently.

According to the last Soviet census in 1989, there were :

6.8 million such Ukrainians in USSR outside Ukraine.

the largest numbers were :

4.4 million in Russia and

890 thousands in Kazakhstan

The population outflow from Ukraine, however, was accompanied by an even larger inflow from other parts of the USSR.

During the Soviet era, Ukraine always had more immigration than emigration.

However, as young people moved to Siberia and the far north of the USSR to work, mostly pensioners returned.

Migration also affected the ethnic composition of the population.

Ethnic Ukrainians made up the largest proportion of those leaving, while the incoming population was to a large extent represented by other ethnicities, in most cases ethnic Russians.

The Soviet Census of 1989 showed that :


44 percent of Russians living in the Ukrainian republic were born outside Ukraine.


The key objectives of Soviet migration policy were mixing the multinational population of the USSR to create a new supranational

"Soviet people"

and satisfying the empire's labor market needs.

Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, emigration to countries outside the Soviet Union was strictly limited. Permission to exit the USSR was issued only for the purpose of family reunification and was primarily available for Jews immigrating to Israel or for Germans moving to Germany.

The Soviet regime relaxed its emigration policies only during perestroika in the 1980s.

In 1987:
5,400 Ukrainians residents received permission to emigrate to the West

in 1989
36,500 were allowed to leave to the West

By 1990, this number had already reached over

90 thousands including minors.

Most of these migrants planned to move to Israel. In reality, only:

76,500 actually left due to the 1990 Gulf War and international tensions in the Middle East.

Migration after collapse of soviet union

The collapse of the USSR and the first years of Ukrainian independence are associated with large-scale immigration into Ukraine.

According to the State Committee of Ukraine for Statistics, which registers incoming/outgoing permanent residents:

1 million( at least) individuals immigrated to Ukraine between the beginning of 1991 and the end of 1992.

Of those:

984 thousands moved in from the former Soviet Union (FSU), and

81 thousands came from Central European countries (these were mostly military personnel of the Soviet army divisions and their family members).

In 1992, when immigration was the strongest:

538,200 people entered Ukraine. However, in the ensuing years, immigration to the country declined.

In 2004, only 38,600 people entered — 32,600 from post-Soviet states and 6 thousands from other countries.

Between 1991 and 2004:

2,229,870 individuals immigrated to Ukraine
(over two million from post-Soviet countries and 164 thousands from other states).

Between 1991 and 2004, the government counted:

2,537,400 individuals who emigrated FROM Ukraine permanently

1,897,500 moved to other post-Soviet states, and

639,900 moved to other, mainly Western, states, for good.

The number of people emigrating from Ukraine has decreased by almost 5 times since the early 1990s.

In 1991:

310,200 individuals left the country (236,600 moved to other post-Soviet states and

73,600 to other countries).

However, in 2004, only:

46,200 emigrated — 28,900 to CIS(Sovok) states and

17,300 to other states.

The decline in emigration can also be attributed to Ukrainian citizens no longer being able to obtain political asylum in the West

Labor Migration

In the context of low salaries and unemployment within Ukraine, labor migration became a mass phenomenon at the end of the 1990s.

Estimates reach up to

7 milion ukrainians are working abroad now.


10 thousands(and more) Ukrainians entered Argentina during the 1990s

In 2002 the official(minimal) figures that Ukrainian embassies reported in 2002 are:

300 thousands Ukrainian citizens are working in Poland,

200 thousands in Italy, approximately

200 thousands in the Czech Republic,

150 thousands in Portugal,

100 thousands in Spain,

35 thousands in Turkey,

20 thousands in the US.

Largest number of Ukrainian workers abroad, about

1 million, are in the Russian Federation.

Remittances from Ukrainians working abroad in 2002 amount to between :

$4 and $6 billion per year.

This money is predominantly used for family consumption as well as for children's education and housing. To a much lesser extent, money is invested into small family businesses, mainly because Ukraine has few economic incentives for such enterprises.

Actual figures as of today are considerably higher:


In 2003 estimates put the number of Ukrainians working in London as high as

40 thousands(London) with possibly up to

100 thousands(United Kingdom) Ukrainians in the U.K. as a whole.

In 2003 Nina Karpachova, Ukrainian Parliament Commissioner for Human rights, declared :

"Every fifth able-bodied Ukrainian is working abroad at present."


In May 2005, Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs Valentyn Nalyvaichenko offered the following figures and explanations :

1 million to 1.2 million Ukrainians work in Russia "at the time the work force is in high demand there";

220 thousands to 230 thousands work in Portugal, of whom, 200 thousands have legal employment

120 thousands to 130 thousands work in Spain, 50 thousands on a legal basis

50 thousands(around)Ukrainians received 5year multi-entry visas to the United States in 2004

Transit, Illegal Migration, and Human Trafficking

The absence of well-regulated borders with the newly independent states of the FSU, and increased border and immigration security within the European Union (EU) have turned Ukraine into a transit country for illegal migrants from Asia and Africa seeking entrance to Western Europe.

Between 1991 and 2003 about :

100 thousands illegal migrants were detained at Ukraine's western border.

The number of individuals apprehended skyrocketed from 148 in 1991 to 14,600 in 1999.

Every year:

25 thousands to 28 thousands illegal foreigners are identified through spot ID checks and other forms of internal control.

Their real number, however, is much higher, since Ukraine has less control of its eastern border with Russia, the country faces a growing number of illegal and other kacap migrants.

100 thousands Ukrainian women became victims of human trafficking in the 1990s.

Only 15 percent of them were aware of what fate awaited them abroad. The remaining 85 percent believed they would be employed as waitresses, dancers, or maids in hotels.

Some quite interesting additional facts:

Soviet Occupation

According to the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, by 1989 the estimated number of Ukrainians and their descendants living outside of the political boundaries of Ukraine was:

14 million 464 thousands.

Most of them were inhabitants of neighboring countries (Russia, Moldova, Belarus, Poland, etc.), but a significant number - about

2.5 million - dwelled in the Americas and close to

1.5 million others were residing in the non-Russian parts of Soviet Asia, especially in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

The estimated number of Ukrainians in Western Europe in 1989 - less than 100 thousands - was small by comparison; that community, in less than two decades, is now a number of times larger.

after soviet union collapsed

10 thousands(and more) Ukrainians entered Argentina during the 1990s. In the period 1990-2000 a total of:

9,879 permits for temporary residence and another 587 for permanent residence in Argentina were granted to Ukrainian nationals.


2,943,471 (according to 2002 All-Russian Census) Ukrainians lived in the Russian Federation - fewer than the last Soviet census:

4.4 million (1989 Soviet Census) had reported .

Yet Russia receives the most Ukrainian visitors:

6.1 million Ukrainians visited Russia (more than any other country) in 2002
compared with
4.2 million Ukrainians visited Poland in 2002

Which puts Russian Census figures in question:
russification of ukrainians is supposed to help curb their nationalism and desire to freedom.


United Kingdom:
in the United Kingdom, where the number of Ukrainian visitors in recent years has steadily been increasing. In that country, during the period of 2000 to the first half of 2002, "the U.K. Embassy in Ukraine informed that 8,825 persons visited ... for education, 40 for medical treatment, 963 for employment, and 8,627 for agricultural work.

In 2003 estimates put the number of Ukrainians working in London as high as:

40 thousands, with possibly up to

100 thousands Ukrainians in the U.K. as a whole.

In May 2002 a reported

5 thousands Ukrainians gathered in Rome, the capital city of Italy, to attend a Ukrainian Catholic Easter divine liturgy that was celebrated by Bishop Ivan Choma and 10 other priests in the Church of St. Sophia. In addition, "Ukrainians in more than

40 other Italian cities were able to celebrate Easter in their own language and rite.


In 2003 Nina Karpachova, Ukrainian Parliament Commissioner for Human rights, declared :

"Every fifth able-bodied Ukrainian is working abroad at present."

Tags: migration of ukrainians
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